Embarking on research assignments for a Model United Nations (MUN) conference can be an incredibly daunting task. Granted, understanding the background, current stance and prospects of a UN Member State is nothing short of complex. Adding the multifaceted global issues delegates find solutions for in MUN to the above mix, it is safe to say that research can inspire a plethora of attitudes on delegates (discouragement and intimidation included).
In response to such feelings, we at United Ambassadors put part of our expertise at your disposal to help you make research more efficient and less stressful. We have divided this skill into four principles: your topic, country policy, committee, and solutions. Following, explore several of the secrets to mastering research that we teach at the United Ambassadors MUN Academy:
I. On Mastering Topic Research
1. Do not stop after reading your Secretary-General (SG) report
Several weeks before attending a UN4MUN conference, you will be given a document written by its conference’s Secretary-General. It provides an overview of the topic at hand and its focus points, evaluates past actions, recommends possible solutions and outlines the positions of the committee’s political groups. Unfortunately, the number of delegates that content themselves with reading the SG report as most of their research is incredibly high. They fail to realize that the SG report is meant to act as the foundation for further investigation, rather than a replacement for it. Thus, they have little prospect of reaching their full potential in committee. Keep in mind that in MUN, knowledge is power, especially when making speeches and negotiating. So do go further and wait to reap the benefits of successful research at the conference.
2. Understand your topic, its history, and its importance
Keep in mind that the purpose of research is not printing out piles of information; instead, it is generating a your topic. But where do you build the foundation for said interest?
Begin by defining the topic at hand, and understanding keywords mentioned in the SG report. Then, ask yourself, when and why did the issue become of international concern? What are the risks of not solving it? Does it directly violate international law?
Additionally, search for the origins of the issue, as it will enable you to craft enormously compelling solutions that address its root causes.
3. Define the key players
These are the nations that are directly affected by the problem defined in your SG report or are its perpetrators. Find out about their objectives and consider them when thinking of solutions. Ask yourself, what caused this issue to arise? Was it caused by an action from a particular actor in the political arena?
4. Search for the human aspect
Every topic discussed at the UN affects human lives. Thus, it will be your task to identify the demographics affected. Are the victims or perpetrators from a specific country, region, gender, age group or religion? Searching for evidence from primary sources (including journals, interviews, and testimonies) from those affected will boost your interest in the topic, add emotion to your statements, and ensure that you give a name and a face to those otherwise represented by facts and figures.
II. On Mastering Country Policy Research
1. Understand your country’s demographics
Look out for your country’s population build-up, ethnic majorities and minorities, dominant ideologies, and religious inclinations that currently influence public opinion, as well as your country’s stance on particular topics.
2. Explore its geography, economy and natural resources
Who neighbors your country? Does your nation have friendly relationships with its neighbors? Is it part of a specific regional alliance, economic bloc or political group such as NATO, ASEAN and the League of Arab States, respectively? Is there a drought, famine or a significant financial crisis going on there? Is it in possession of a resource that could be used for political leverage? The answers to the questions above will be instrumental in determining your country’s foreign policy.
3. Immerse yourself in its history and past actions
Looking for the reasoning behind your country’s history, values and pivotal turning points in it – e.g., war, revolution or reform – is very significant to understanding its viewpoints. Additionally, add to your arsenal by scanning your country’s voting records on relevant UN actions, identifying proposals it supported and understanding why they rejected others.
4. Find declarations from relevant actors
Relevant stakeholders include Heads of State, ambassadors, government officials, political parties and pressure groups, the media, and the civilian population. Prioritize the most recent sources, and use a translator if these resources are not available in your language. The statements in them will tell you exactly how your country’s ambassador would address it.
III. On Mastering Committee Research
1. Know your committee’s powers and purpose
This will guide you in finding solutions suitable to what your committee can do. For instance, a General Assembly committee would seldom impose sanctions or decide upon peacekeeping missions. Avoid proposals that lie outside your powers.
2. Describe your committee’s past actions
Ask yourself, what has the committee already done or supported? When did it discuss the topic previously? Have its decisions been binding? Were they successful? How many countries acted on the issue?
Nevertheless, do not stop here; instead, you must…
3. Analyze past actions
How effectively have UN solutions been implemented, and why? Why have Member States opposed them, if any? Why has previous action been successful/unsuccessful? Getting a grasp of the reasons behind the outcome of UN resolutions will contribute significantly to crafting better reasoned and original proposals.
IV. On Mastering Research for Solutions
It is critical to bear in mind that solutions must be the driving force of your research. There is little point in displaying extensive knowledge of your topic, country policy or committee if you do not use these to identify an area that needs solving and build support for the solution that tackles it. So while you are researching the three previous pillars, begin to think about practical solutions you could propose.At this point, you may be asking yourself, “How do I draft ‘effective solutions?’” Find out below:
1. Build upon past actions
Instead of merely repeating what Member States have already implemented, exploit the momentum of UN past actions – and the lessons learned from them - to increase the efficiency of your own; after all, each UN meeting draws upon the successes and failures of its predecessor. Recognizing and extending solutions that Member States have already agreed upon will harness support for your proposals.
2. Prioritize detail
When exploring ideas for solutions, think of the ‘5 W’s + H:’ what will your solution be? How will it be implemented? Where will it be introduced? When will this occur and for how long? Who will fund it and track its progress? Finally, why is it imperative to implement your solution?
3. Construct a ‘conference influence plan.’
Perhaps the most significant (and top-secret) step to transform your ideas into bulletproof solutions would be to craft a ‘conference influence plan.’ How to do this? Determine which countries or political groups would agree with your solutions, and which would not. Establish arguments in favor and against your ideas, and be prepared to refute those against them. Finally, plan how you would build support for your solutions.
V. General Research Tips
But this is not all of it! Before you apply our expert advice on researching, be sure to check out some of our research tips and tricks below:
1. Always have a research question in mind
What is the purpose of the research you will be conducting? What is the end that you want to reach? Answering the above questions will avoid creating an unproductive research circle.
2. Prioritize using reliable sources
A determining factor in choosing useful sources is their credibility.
3. Fact check
Crosscheck information from unknown or doubtful sources with those renowned for their credibility.
4. Dig for scholarly articles and journals
Expose yourself to professional reviews with extensive detail and analysis; chances are, these information gold mines will provide you with invaluable insight that is next to impossible to find elsewhere.
5. Focus on one article at a time
A research trap that most of us fall into is getting so excited during the middle of our research that we just fly from one article to the next, barely skimming through each. While skimming is very useful in determining whether a source meets your needs, it is insufficient when you are trying to immerse yourself in a given topic.
6. Take notes as you research
Human memory is volatile, so delaying your writing to the post-research period will increase your chances of forgetting what you read. A great way to save time and ensure your info is fresh is to conduct both processes in parallel. While doing this, it is essential that you acknowledge your sources – you will need them to write your position paper and as a backup in case another delegate questions their provenance. Noting sources down as your information field grows saves you from spending significant time scampering to find them later.
Take it Further
As you can see from the comprehensiveness of this article, we, at the United Ambassadors MUN Academy have done our research. Let us help you do yours. For extensive training on research in MUN, apply to attend the United Ambassadors MUN Academy! Delve even deeper into the world of Model United Nations in California or Dubai in 2018. Applications for Dubai in 2018 are already open. Put your skills into practice at our cutting-edge conferences in Geneva and New York City!